Intelligence and a full range of emotions are commonly viewed as belonging exclusively to the domain of humans. Yet recent research finds that non-human animals have the mental and emotional capacity necessary for smarts, compassion, and a sense of fair play. The key, according to primatologist Franz de Waal, is to replace human standards of judgment with the standards displayed by animals themselves in their own environment. We will study and discuss animal tool use, scheming and deception, communication and language, emotions, ethics and politics, and culture. The study of animal minds forces us to confront questionable claims about human uniqueness and superiority. The moral stakes are high in how we regard other species since billions of animals are used and slaughtered for human purposes. We will use two texts: Franz de Waal’s Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are? (Norton, 2016) and Mama’s Last Hug (Norton, 2019), as well as supplemental articles. No class on 11/27/19.