“Indian Removal” is a difficult and gut-wrenching episode in American history. By means of deception, lies, and sheer chicanery, approximately 60,000 Native Americans consisting of five civilized nations, including the Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, Cherokees, and Seminoles were forcibly uprooted and expelled from their native homelands in the Southeast. It is a story unparalleled in the history of the United States, yet tragically repeated over and over throughout North America. For more than a decade in the 1830s, there occurred tragic events of forced removal over the “Trail of Tears” suffered by the five civilized nations. (Note: Trail of Tears as used here is applied not only with the Cherokees, but also with other four civilized nations.) We will read Indian Removal by Grant Foreman (University of Oklahoma Press, 1953, republished 1972).