Historians lauded the frontier as the factor that turned Europeans into Americans with emphases on individualism, self-reliance, and violence. Traditional western films were set between the years 1865 and 1890 when the frontier was still open. These films were mostly low-budget until 1939 when Stagecoach was released. It was nominated for seven Oscars, winning two. This was followed by two westerns receiving Best Picture nominations in the 1940s, The Ox-Bow Incident and The Treasure of the Sierra Madre. The 1950s were the golden decade for westerns, featuring such classics as Viva Zapata, The Big Country, and Rio Bravo. During the 1960s the focus changed to self-consciousness (The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance), the dying of the Old West (Lonely Are the Brave), the spaghetti western (Once Upon a Time in the West) and bandits as heroes (Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid). In the early 1990s there was a resurgence of interest in westerns (Unforgiven, Tombstone), followed in 2010 by the remake of an earlier classic, True Grit. All films cited will be viewed at home prior to the study group. Join us for a lively discussion of each film.